A Morpholino oligo can modify splicing of a pre-mRNA - www.gene-tools.com



This paper examines the cell lineage relationships and cell fates in embryos of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus leading to the various cell types derived from the definitive vegetal plate territory or the veg2 tier of cells. These cell types are gut, pigment cells, basal cells and coelomic pouches. They are cell types that constitute embryonic structures through cellular migration or rearrangement unlike the relatively non-motile ectoderm cell types. For this analysis, we use previous knowledge of lineage to assign macromeres to one of four types: VOM, the oral macromere; VAM, the aboral macromere, right and left VLM, the lateral macromeres. Each of the four macromeres contributes progeny to all of the cell types that descend from the definitive vegetal plate. Thus in the gut each macromere contributes to the esophagus, stomach and intestine, and the stripe of labeled cells descendant from a macromere reflects the re-arrangement of cells that occurs during archenteron elongation. Pigment cell contributions exhibit no consistent pattern among the four macromeres, and are haphazardly distributed throughout the ectoderm. Gut and pigment cell contributions are thus radially symmetrical. In contrast, the VOM blastomere contributes to both of the coelomic pouches while the other three macromeres contribute to only one or the other pouch. The total of the macromere contribution amounts to 60% of the cells constituting the coelomic pouches.