Morpholinos for splice modificatio

Morpholinos for splice modification


Vital dye analysis of cranial neural crest cell migration in the mouse embryo
G.N. Serbedzija, M. Bronner-Fraser, S.E. Fraser


The spatial and temporal aspects of cranial neural crest cell migration in the mouse are poorly understood because of technical limitations. No reliable cell markers are available and vital staining of embryos in culture has had limited success because they develop normally for only 24 hours. Here, we circumvent these problems by combining vital dye labelling with exo utero embryological techniques. To define better the nature of cranial neural crest cell migration in the mouse embryo, premigratory cranial neural crest cells were labelled by injecting DiI into the amniotic cavity on embryonic day 8. Embryos, allowed to develop an additional 1 to 5 days exo utero in the mother before analysis, showed distinct and characteristic patterns of cranial neural crest cell migration at the different axial levels. Neural crest cells arising at the level of the forebrain migrated ventrally in a contiguous stream through the mesenchyme between the eye and the diencephalon. In the region of the midbrain, the cells migrated ventrolaterally as dispersed cells through the mesenchyme bordered by the lateral surface of the mesencephalon and the ectoderm. At the level of the hindbrain, neural crest cells migrated ventrolaterally in three subectodermal streams that were segmentally distributed. Each stream extended from the dorsal portion of the neural tube into the distal portion of the adjacent branchial arch. The order in which cranial neural crest cells populate their derivatives was determined by labelling embryos at different stages of development. Cranial neural crest cells populated their derivatives in a ventral-to-dorsal order, similar to the pattern observed at trunk levels. In order to confirm and extend the findings obtained with exo utero embryos, DiI (1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate) was applied focally to the neural folds of embryos, which were then cultured for 24 hours. Because the culture technique permitted increased control of the timing and location of the DiI injection, it was possible to determine the duration of cranial neural crest cell emigration from the neural tube. Cranial neural crest cell emigration from the neural folds was completed by the 11-somite stage in the region of the rostral hindbrain, the 14-somite stage in the regions of the midbrain and caudal hindbrain and not until the 16-somite stage in the region of the forebrain. At each level, the time between the earliest and latest neural crest cells to emigrate from the neural tube appeared to be 9 hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)