The appearance of the calcium-binding proteins (CaBP-D28K and CaBP-D9K) in embryonic mice tissues was determined using a sensitive immunohistochemical assay. CaBP-D28K first appears in myenteric nerve plexuses of the duodenum on day E15, in duodenal villus cells on day E16, in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum on day E19, in cells of the mesonephric duct on day E11 and in the metanephric duct on day E12. CaBP-D9K first appears in enterocytes of the duodenum on day E18, in trophoblastic giant cells (TGC) of the placenta on day E10, and in the metanephric duct on day E15. A differential time of appearance and colocalization of the two CaBPs is demonstrated in the embryonic mouse kidney, suggesting either that vitamin D does not control both CaBPs in the foetus or that the vitamin D control is unequal. The early appearance and location of CaBP-D9K in TGCs may suggest that these cells play an important role in transplacental transfer of calcium.