Morpholinos for splice modificatio

Morpholinos for splice modification

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Summary

At gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo, a dramatic rearrangement of cells establishes the three germ layers of the organism. Experiments have revealed a number of cell interactions at this stage that transfer patterning information from cell to cell. Of particular significance, primary mesenchyme cells, which are responsible for production of the embryonic skeleton, have been shown to obtain extensive positional information from the embryonic ectoderm. In the present study, high resolution Nomarski imaging reveals the presence of very thin filopodia (02-0.4 micron in diameter) extending from primary mesenchyme cells as well as from ectodermal and secondary mesenchyme cells. These thin filopodia sometimes extend to more than 80 microns in length and show average growth and retraction rates of nearly 10 microns/minute. The filopodia are highly dynamic, rapidly changing from extension to resorption; frequently, the resorption changes to resumption of assembly. The behavior, location and timing of active thin filopodial movements does not correlate with cell locomotion; instead, there is a strong correlation suggesting their involvement in cell-cell interactions associated with signaling and patterning at gastrulation. Nickel-treatment, which is known to create a patterning defect in skeletogenesis due to alterations in the ectoderm, alters the normal position-dependent differences in the thin filopodia. The effect is present in recombinant embryos in which the ectoderm alone was treated with nickel, and is absent in recombinant embryos in which only the primary mesenchyme cells were treated, suggesting that the filopodial length is substratum dependent rather than being primary mesenchyme cell autonomous. The thin filopodia provide a means by which cells can contact others several cell diameters away, suggesting that some of the signaling previously thought to be mediated by diffusible signals may instead by the result of direct receptor-ligand interactions between cell membranes.