During Drosophila oogenesis, a stem cell daughter undergoes precisely four rounds of mitosis to generate a cyst of 16 cells interconnected by cytoplasmic bridges. One of the cells becomes the oocyte while the remaining 15 cells differentiate as nurse cells. We hve identified a gene, encore, that is involved both in regulating the number of germline mitoses and in the process of oocyte differentation. Mutations in encore result in exactly one extra round of mitosis in the germline. Genetic and molecular studies indicate that this mitotic defect may be mediated through the gene bag-of-marbles. The isolation and characterization of multiple alleles of encore revealed that they were all temperature sensitive for this phenotype. Mutations in encore also affect the process of oocyte differentiation. Egg chambers are produced in which the oocyte nucleus has undergone endoreplication often resulting in the formation of 16 nurse cells. We argue that these two phenotypes produced by mutations in encore represent two independent requirements for encore during oogenesis.