Morpholinos for splice modificatio

Morpholinos for splice modification



Ulnaless (Ul), an X-ray-induced dominant mutation in mice, severely disrupts development of forearms and forelegs. The mutation maps on chromosome 2, tightly linked to the HoxD complex, a cluster of regulatory genes required for proper morphogenesis. In particular, 5′-located (posterior) Hoxd genes are involved in limb development and combined mutations within these genes result in severe alterations in appendicular skeleton. We have used several engineered alleles of the HoxD complex to genetically assess the potential linkage between these two loci. We present evidence indicating that Ulnaless is allelic to Hoxd genes. Important modifications in the expression patterns of the posterior Hoxd-12 and Hoxd-13 genes at the Ul locus suggest that Ul is a regulatory mutation that interferes with a control mechanism shared by multiple genes to coordinate Hoxd function during limb morphogenesis.