Morpholinos for splice modificatio

Morpholinos for splice modification


Left-right asymmetry of a nodal-related gene is regulated by dorsoanterior midline structures during Xenopus development
J.L. Lohr, M.C. Danos, H.J. Yost


Development of asymmetry along the left-right axis is a critical step in the formation of the vertebrate body plan. Disruptions of normal left-right patterning are associated with abnormalities of multiple organ systems, including significant congenital heart disease. The mouse nodal gene, and its homologues in chick and Xenopus, are among the first genes known to be asymmetrically expressed along the left-right axis before the development of organ asymmetry. Alterations in the expression pattern of mouse nodal and the chick homologue (cNR-1) have been associated with defects in the development of left-right asymmetry and cardiac looping (Levin, M., Johnson, R. L., Stern, C. D., Kuehn, M. and Tabin, C. (1995) Cell 82, 803–814; Collignon, J., Varlet, I. and Robertson, E. J. (1996) Nature 381, 155–158; Lowe, L. A., Supp, D. M., Sampath, K., Yokoyama, T., Wright, C. V. E., Potter, S. S., Overbeek, P. and Kuehn, M. R. (1996) Nature 381, 158–161). Here, we show that the normal expression patterns of the Xenopus nodal-related gene (Xnr-1) are variable in a large population of embryos and that Xnr-1 expression is altered by treatments that perturb normal left-right development. The incidence of abnormal Xnr-1 expression patterns correlates well with cardiac reversal rates in both control and experimentally treated Xenopus embryos. Furthermore, dorsal midline structures, including notochord and/or hypochord and neural floorplate, regulate Xnr-1 expression prior to the specification of cardiac left-right orientation by repression of Xnr-1 expression in the right lateral plate mesoderm during closure of the neural tube. The correlation of Xnr-1 expression and orientation of cardiac looping suggests that Xnr-1 is a component of the left-right signaling pathway required for the specification of cardiac orientation in Xenopus, and that dorsal midline structures normally act to repress the signaling pathway on the right side of the embryo.