Morpholinos for splice modificatio

Morpholinos for splice modification



A mature inner ear is a complex labyrinth containing multiple sensory organs and nonsensory structures in a fixed configuration. Any perturbation in the structure of the labyrinth will undoubtedly lead to functional deficits. Therefore, it is important to understand molecularly how and when the position of each inner ear component is determined during development. To address this issue, each axis of the otocyst (embryonic day 2.5, E2.5, stage 16–17) was changed systematically at an age when axial information of the inner ear is predicted to be fixed based on gene expression patterns. Transplanted inner ears were analyzed at E4.5 for gene expression of BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein), SOHo-1 (sensory organ homeobox-1), Otx1 (cognate of Drosophila orthodenticle gene), p75NGFR (nerve growth factor receptor) and Msx1 (muscle segment homeobox), or at E9 for their gross anatomy and sensory organ formation. Our results showed that axial specification in the chick inner ear occurs later than expected and patterning of sensory organs in the inner ear was first specified along the anterior/posterior (A/P) axis, followed by the dorsal/ventral (D/V) axis. Whereas the A/P axis of the sensory organs was fixed at the time of transplantation, the A/P axis for most non-sensory structures was not and was able to be re-specified according to the new axial information from the host. The D/V axis for the inner ear was not fixed at the time of transplantation. The asynchronous specification of the A/P and D/V axes of the chick inner ear suggests that sensory organ formation is a multi-step phenomenon, rather than a single inductive event.