Morpholinos for splice modificatio

Morpholinos for splice modification



The mammalian Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 genes code for highly related transcription factors, which play important roles in embryonic development and organogenesis. Here we report the characterization of all members of the zebrafish Pax2/5/8 family. These genes have arisen by duplications before or at the onset of vertebrate evolution. Due to an additional genome amplification in the fish lineage, the zebrafish contains two Pax2 genes, the previously known Pax[b] gene (here renamed as Pax2.1) and a novel Pax2.2 gene. The zebrafish Pax2.1 gene most closely resembles the mammalian Pax2 gene in its expression pattern, as it is transcribed first in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region, then in the optic stalk, otic system, pronephros and nephric ducts, and lastly in specific interneurons of the hindbrain and spinal cord. Pax2.2 differs from Pax2.1 by the absence of expression in the nephric system and by a delayed onset of transcription in other Pax2.1 expession domains. Pax8 is also expressed in the same domains as Pax2.1, but its transcription is already initiated during gastrulation in the primordia of the otic placode and pronephric anlage, thus identifying Pax8 as the earliest developmental marker of these structures. The zebrafish Pax5 gene, in contrast to its mouse orthologue, is transcribed in the otic system in addition to its prominent expression at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. The no isthmus (noi) mutation is known to inactivate the Pax2.1 gene, thereby affecting the development of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region, pronephric system, optic stalk and otic region. Although the different members of the Pax2/5/8 family may potentially compensate for the loss of Pax2.1 function, we demonstrate here that only the expression of the Pax2.2 gene remains unaffected in noi mutant embryos. The expression of Pax5 and Pax8 is either not initiated at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary or is later not maintained in other expression domains. Consequently, the noi mutation of zebrafish is equivalent to combined inactivation of the mouse Pax2 and Pax5 genes with regard to the loss of midbrain-hindbrain boundary development.