Morpholinos for splice modificatio

Morpholinos for splice modification

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Summary

Segmentation of a vertebrate embryo begins with the subdivision of the paraxial mesoderm into somites through a not-well-understood process. Recent studies provided evidence that the Notch-Delta and the FGFR (fibroblast growth factor receptor) signalling pathways are required for segmentation. In addition, the Mesp family of bHLH transcription factors have been implicated in establishing a segmental prepattern in the presomitic mesoderm. In this study, we have characterized zebrafish mesp-a and mesp-b genes that are closely related to Mesp family genes in other vertebrates. During gastrulation, only mesp-a is expressed in the paraxial mesoderm at the blastoderm margin. During the segmentation period, both genes are segmentally expressed in one to three stripes in the anterior parts of somite primordia. In fused somites (fss) embryos, in which all early somite boundary formation is blocked, initial mesp-a expression at the gastrula stage remains intact, but the expression of mesp-a and mesp-b is not detected during the segmentation period. This suggests that these genes are downstream targets of fss at the segmentation stage. Comparison with her1 expression (Muller, M., von Weizsacker, E. and Campos-Ortega, J. A. (1996) Development 122, 2071–2078) suggests that, like her1, mesp genes are not expressed in primordia of the first several somites. Furthermore, we found that zebrafish her1 expression oscillates in the presomitic mesoderm. The her1 stripe, which first appears in the tailbud region, moves in a caudal to rostral direction, and it finally overlaps the most rostral mesp stripe. Thus, in the trunk region, both her1 and mesp transcripts are detected in every somite primordium posterior to the forming somites. Ectopic expression of Mesp-b in embryos causes a loss of the posterior identity within the somite primordium, leading to a segmentation defect. These embryos show a reduction in expression of the posterior genes, myoD and notch5, with uniform expression of the anterior genes, FGFR1, papc and notch6. These observations suggest that zebrafish mesp genes are involved in anteroposterior specification within the presumptive somites, by regulating the essential signalling pathways mediated by Notch-Delta and FGFR.