Morpholinos for splice modificatio

Morpholinos for splice modification


The regulation of TGFβ signal transduction
Aristidis Moustakas, Carl-Henrik Heldin


Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathways are implicated in metazoan development, adult homeostasis and disease. TGFβ ligands signal via receptor serine/threonine kinases that phosphorylate, and activate, intracellular Smad effectors as well as other signaling proteins. Oligomeric Smad complexes associate with chromatin and regulate transcription, defining the biological response of a cell to TGFβ family members. Signaling is modulated by negative-feedback regulation via inhibitory Smads. We review here the mechanisms of TGFβ signal transduction in metazoans and emphasize events crucial for embryonic development.


  • We acknowledge funding by the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (LICR), the Atlantic Philanthropies/LICR Clinical Discovery Program, the Swedish Cancer Society, the Swedish Research Council, the European Union Marie Curie Research Training Network `EpiPlastCarcinoma' and the European Union Network of Excellence `ENFIN'. We acknowledge the contribution of all past and present members of the TGFβ signaling group to the scientific work emanating from our laboratory.

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