Table of Contents
- Human development: a Special Issue
Summary: With this Special Issue, Development signals its strong interest in the field of human development – a new research frontier opened up by recent technological advances.
- Enabling research with human embryonic and fetal tissue resources
Summary: This Spotlight summarises the remit and efforts of the Human Developmental Biology Resource – and other similar projects – that provides researchers with access to human tissue and related services.
- The advancement of human pluripotent stem cell-derived therapies into the clinic
Summary: This opinion piece considers the progress in the use of human PSCs in regenerative medicine – fuelled by advances in developmental biology – in five areas that offer great promise for clinical applications.
- When rejuvenation is a problem: challenges of modeling late-onset neurodegenerative disease
Summary: This opinion piece discusses the difficulties involved in using stem cells to study diseases of the elderly, and how these might be overcome.
- The pluripotent state in mouse and human
Summary: This Review examines recent efforts in defining and capturing the human naïve pluripotent state in vivo and in vitro, in light of the different states of pluripotency found in the mouse.
- Genomic approaches to studying human-specific developmental traits
Summary: As discussed in this Review, genome sequencing and functional genomic approaches enable analysis of the evolutionary and developmental origin of traits unique to our species.
- Modeling mouse and human development using organoid cultures
Summary: This Review discusses recent advances in the generation of ESC- and adult stem cell-derived organoids in order to understand the development of endoderm-derived organs in human and to develop therapeutic strategies for repair.
- Human pancreas development
Summary: This Review presents a human-centric view of the latest advances in our understanding of pancreas development and the relevance of these insights from a clinical perspective.
- Is this a brain which I see before me? Modeling human neural development with pluripotent stem cells
Summary: This Review examines stem cell-based approaches to analysing human brain development, from specification of particular cell types to building neuronal networks.
STEM CELLS AND REGENERATION
- Defining the three cell lineages of the human blastocyst by single-cell RNA-seq
Summary: Single-cell RNA-sequencing of human and mouse embryos reveals conserved and human-specific transcriptional programmes as well as a functional requirement for TGFβ signalling in human embryos.
- Comprehensive analysis of microRNA expression in regionalized human neural progenitor cells reveals microRNA-10 as a caudalizing factor
Summary: The profiling of neural progenitors derived from human ESCs and foetal brain shows that miRNAs display region-specific expression patterns, suggesting that they contribute to establishing regional identity.
- Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro
Summary: Human PSC-derived cerebral cortex neurons form large-scale functional networks that change over time and mimic those found in the developing cerebral cortex in vivo.
- Human epidermal neural crest stem cells as a source of Schwann cells
Summary: Human epidermal neural crest stem cells isolated from the bulge of hair follicles are used to derive Schwann cells that could be useful for regenerative therapies, disease modelling and drug discovery.
- Inhibition of β-catenin signaling respecifies anterior-like endothelium into beating human cardiomyocytes
Summary: The manipulation of signals that control embryonic patterning allows human pluripotent stem cells to be differentiated into endothelial subpopulations with distinct haematopoietic, angiogenic and cardiogenic potential.
- Hsa-miR-30d, secreted by the human endometrium, is taken up by the pre-implantation embryo and might modify its transcriptome
Summary: Maternal miRNAs are differentially expressed in the human endometrium and are released into the endometrial fluid, suggesting that they may act as transcriptomic modifiers of the pre-implantation embryo.
TECHNIQUES AND RESOURCES
- Interspecific in vitro assay for the chimera-forming ability of human pluripotent stem cells
Summary: An approach to assess the chimera-forming ability of PSCs is developed and used to assess the developmental potential of rodent, monkey and human PSCs.
- Transcriptome of human foetal heart compared with cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells
Summary: The analysis of gene expression in the human foetal heart reveals stage- and chamber-specific genes and provides a dataset that can be used for benchmarking human PSC-derived heart cells.
- Quantification of regenerative potential in primary human mammary epithelial cells
Summary: An assay in which single, freshly isolated human mammary epithelial cells are cultured in a matrix environment is developed and used to quantify the regenerative potential of human mammary cells.