Table of Contents
IN THIS ISSUE
- Rebuilding a broken heart: lessons from developmental and regenerative biology
Summary: This Meeting Review summarises the findings presented at the 2016 Weinstein Cardiovascular Development Conference, highlighting the range of research currently being applied to study human cardiac diseases.
- Post-transcriptional modifications in development and stem cells
Summary: Post-transcriptional modifications regulate stem cell functions in development and adult tissues by co-ordinating the availability and sequence of transcripts that maintain the cell type-specific proteome.
- The functions of long noncoding RNAs in development and stem cells
Summary: This Review discusses the known biological functions of mammalian lncRNAs and highlights emerging paradigms of their modes of action.
STEM CELLS AND REGENERATION
- Emergence of dorsal-ventral polarity in ESC-derived retinal tissue
- Notch signaling promotes nephrogenesis by downregulating Six2
Summary: Notch is necessary and sufficient for downregulation of Six2 during nephrogenesis, while nephron progenitors that lack Notch signaling fail to form all segments of the nephron, not just proximal tubules.
- Somatic stem cell differentiation is regulated by PI3K/Tor signaling in response to local cues
Summary: Proper differentiation of somatic cyst stem cells as they move away from their niche requires an increase in PI3K/Tor signaling, downstream of Insulin receptor activation.
- A link between planar polarity and staircase-like bundle architecture in hair cells
Summary: In the mouse cochlea, LGN and Gai guide planar polarity in hair cells and are essential for stereocilia elongation, the staircase pattern of the hair bundle and hearing.
- Deposition of collagen type I onto skeletal endothelium reveals a new role for blood vessels in regulating bone morphology
Highlighted article: Collagen I is deposited by osteoblasts onto endothelial cells within bone and serves as a template for mineralisation, with ossification thus spatially and temporally following vascular patterning.
- Members of the Rusc protein family interact with Sufu and inhibit vertebrate Hedgehog signaling
- Functional roles of MMP14 and MMP15 in early postnatal mammary gland development
Highlighted article: Global deletion of MMP14 or MMP15 has no significant effect on mammary gland branching but uncovers unexpected and differential roles for these MMPs in adipose development in mice.
- Development of the neurons controlling fertility in humans: new insights from 3D imaging and transparent fetal brains
- Cytokinin acts through the auxin influx carrier AUX1 to regulate cell elongation in the root
- Control of lens development by Lhx2-regulated neuroretinal FGFs
Summary: The LIM homeodomain transcription factor Lhx2 regulates FGF3, FGF9 and FGF15 and is essential for lens cell proliferation, survival and differentiation in mice.
- Notch-Wnt-Bmp crosstalk regulates radial patterning in the mouse cochlea in a spatiotemporal manner
Summary: Forced activation of Wnt signaling in the sensory domain of the developing cochlea impacts radial patterning and downstream gene expression in a spatiotemporal manner.
- Tril targets Smad7 for degradation to allow hematopoietic specification in Xenopus embryos
Summary: Tril is a Gata2 target gene that triggers degradation of Smad7 protein during gastrulation, allowing for robust transduction of Bmp signals to enable the commitment of mesoderm to a blood fate.
- Tissue-specific roles for sonic hedgehog signaling in establishing thymus and parathyroid organ fate
Summary: SHH signaling within both the neural crest and endoderm influences thymus and parathyroid cell fate establishment and subsequent organogenesis.
- ATR maintains chromosomal integrity during postnatal cerebellar neurogenesis and is required for medulloblastoma formation
Summary: The serine/threonine kinase ATR prevents chromosome fragmentation during postnatal cerebellar neurogenesis in mice, suggesting that ATR dependence may be exploited for medulloblastoma therapy.
- Boronic acid treatment phenocopies monopteros by affecting PIN1 membrane stability and polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis thaliana embryos
Summary: The boron competitor phenylboronic acid differentially affects membrane proteins and interrupts the auxin signalling pathway, leading to perturbed embryonic root development in Arabidopsis.
- Control of root cap maturation and cell detachment by BEARSKIN transcription factors in Arabidopsis
Summary: Arabidopsis NAC transcription factors BRN1 and BRN2 are specifically expressed in the outer root cap layer and activate genes associated with its cellular functions.
TECHNIQUES AND RESOURCES
- Monitoring cell-cell contacts in vivo in transgenic animals
Summary: A synthetic genetic system is used to monitor cell-cell contacts in animals, to genetically manipulate interacting cells, and to investigate the connectivity of neurons in brain circuits.
- Reversible optogenetic control of kinase activity during differentiation and embryonic development
Summary: Light is used to modulate the timing of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity during PC12 cell differentiation and distinct developmental stages of Xenopus embryos.
ARTICLES OF INTEREST IN OUR OTHER JOURNALS
From Journal of Cell Science