Here we unravel the mechanism of action of Helios (He) during the development of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). He regulates the second wave of striatal neurogenesis involved in the generation of striatopallidal neurons that express dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) and enkephalin (ENK). To exert this effect He is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) retaining them into the G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. Thus, the lack of He produces an increase of S-phase entry and S-phase length of NPCs which in turn impairs striatal neurogenesis and produces an accumulation of the number of cycling NPCs in the germinal zone (GZ) that end up dying at postnatal stages. Therefore, He−/- mice show a reduction in the number of Dorso-Medial Striatal MSNs in the adulthood that produces deficits in motor skills acquisition. In addition, overexpression of He in NPCs induce DARPP32 phenotype when transplanted in mouse striatum.
Present findings demonstrate that He is involved in the correct development of a subset of striatopallidal MSNs and reveal new cellular mechanisms for neuronal development.
- Received April 5, 2016.
- Accepted March 3, 2017.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided that the original work is properly attributed.
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