Table 1.

Genetic dose and temperature dependence of pro-1 mutant phenotypes

GenotypeTemperature (°C)Pro* (%)Mig (%)Gametogenesis (%)Abnormal vulva§ (%)nHours to adult molt**Relative rate of development††
pro-1 (+) 2501100018035.51
pro-1(+)/pro-1(na48) 2501100011235.51
pro-1(na48) 2583381000138540.66
pro-1(na48)/Df ‡‡ 255769100054850.42
pro-1(RNAi) §§ 2515373Pvl 17122NDND
pro-1(+) 2001100010847.51
pro-1(+)/pro-1(na48) 2001100012647.51
pro-1(na48) ¶¶ 2011561000130780.61
pro-1(na48)/Df *** 202080100Vul 7, Pvl 2156∼1100.43
pro-1(+) 15001000122781
pro-1(+)/pro-1(na48) 15001000118781
pro-1(na48) 1506566Pvl 9114∼1680.46
pro-1(na48)/Df 15010036Vul 10028∼2400.33
  • ND, not determined.

  • * Mitotic germ cells proximal to gametes. In a separate experiment, 72 hours post-hatch-off, 63% of Pro arms (n=94; 72% Pro) contained both oocytes and sperm and remainder contained only sperm. At 96 hours, 84% of Pro arms (n=70; 71% Pro) contained both oocytes and sperm. Therefore, reduced oogenesis may reflect a delay in the spermatogenesis/oogenesis switch.

  • Abnormal DTC migration. Defects seen in dorsal, centrifugal or both migrations. Mig and Pro did not correlate nor were they mutually exclusive.

  • Spermatocytes, sperm and/or oocyte nuclei observed with DAPI or Nomarski.

  • § Vul, Vulvaless; Pvl, protruding vulva (versus Evl, abnormally everted vulva).

  • n=number of gonad arms scored. For vulva phenotypes, the number of animals scored is n/2.

  • ** Hours to adult molt from the hatch-off (see Materials and methods).

  • †† Relative development rate: hours from hatch-off to adult molt in wild-type over mutant; ratio gives comparative rates of development at different temperatures.

  • ‡‡ Df = mnDf58. pro-1 (na48)/mnDf58 were synchronized non-GFP progeny of pro-1(na48)/mInl males crossed to mnDf58/mInl hermaphrodites. Pro data alone are inconsistent with pro-1(na48) as a simple reduction of function allele. This inconsistency may result from temperature-sensitive haploinsufficiency of another locus under the deficiency.

  • §§ Data are reported from a single experiment (see Materials and methods); similar results were obtained from multiple RNAi experiments.

  • ¶¶ Although pro-1 (na48) is only 11% Pro at 20°C, the strain is difficult to maintain because of Emo sterility. Emo: 33%(29/86) of gonad arms, scored by DAPI at 120 hours post-hatch-off.

  • *** One individual Vul pro-1(na48)/mnDf58 animal displayed the Pro phenotype in both gonad arms.