- Stem cell therapies for retinal diseases: recapitulating development to replace degenerated cells
Summary: This Review article summarizes the current state-of-the-art retinal stem cell therapies, and highlights the essential role of developmental biology in moving this field forward.
- Emergence of dorsal-ventral polarity in ESC-derived retinal tissue
- Fat3 and Ena/VASP proteins influence the emergence of asymmetric cell morphology in the developing retina
Summary: Time-lapse imaging and biochemical studies suggest that Fat3 acts autonomously via Ena/VASP to orient the cytoskeleton in mouse amacrine cell precursors as they migrate and elaborate dendrites.
- Loss of Bmi1 causes anomalies in retinal development and degeneration of cone photoreceptors
Summary: Bmi1 is required to prevent postnatal degeneration of cone photoreceptors and bipolar neurons, while BMI1 inactivation in human embryonic stem cells impairs cone terminal differentiation.
- Cavefish eye loss in response to an early block in retinal differentiation progression
Summary: The characteristic eye loss seen in cavefish species occurs via different mechanisms, indicating that there are several ways to arrest the development and maintenance of an eye.