Table 1.

The effects of FrdMO and DprMO on head formation and morphogenesis

Phenotypes (%)
Morphogenetic defects with
Experimental groupsDose/embryon*NormalNormal headMicrocephalyAcephaly
Control MO16 ng7090460
FrdMO16 ng38526618
DprMO8 ng401532503
FrdMO+DprMO4 ng+2 ng5529182924
FrdMO+DprMO+Frodo4 ng+2 ng+1 ng565920165
FrdMO+DprMO8 ng+4 ng972102563
FrdMO+DprMO+Frodo8 ng+4 ng+1 ng652235385
FrdMO+DprMO+βcat8 ng+4 ng+10 pg61567 (18)235
  • Morpholinos (MOs) and mRNAs as indicated above were injected into the equatorial region of two dorsal blastomeres at four-cell stage. Morphological defects were scored at stages 33-35 and expressed as percentage of total number of injected embryos.

    Incomplete blastomeres closure (n=44, 98%) was observed in embryos injected with FrdMO and DprMO (8 ng+4 ng), and to a lesser degree in embryos injected with FrdMO (16 ng) or DprMO (8 ng) separately (n=40, 20% and n=38, 32%, respectively).

    Data were obtained from three separate experiments.

  • * n, number of scored embryos

  • Percentage of embryos with enlarged head