Table 1.

Selected auxin carriers with established developmental roles

GeneRole in developmentKey references
Auxin influx carrier
AtAUX1 Root gravitropism, lateral root formation, phloem loading in leaves and unloading in roots, root hair development, phyllotaxis, hypocotyl phototropismBainbridge et al., 2008; Bennett et al., 1996; Jones et al., 2009; Marchant et al., 2002; Stone et al., 2008; Swarup et al., 2001
AtLAX1 PhyllotaxisBainbridge et al., 2008
AtLAX2 PhyllotaxisBainbridge et al., 2008
AtLAX3 Phyllotaxis, lateral roots emergenceBainbridge et al., 2008; Swarup et al., 2008
PttLAX1-3 Vascular cambium development in wood-forming tissuesSchrader et al., 2003
PaLAX Root gravitropismHoyerová et al., 2008
MtLAX1-5 Early nodule developmentde Billy et al., 2001; Schnabel and Frugoli, 2004
CsAUX1 Root gravitropismKamada et al., 2003
LaAUX1 Etiolated hypocotyl growthOliveros-Valenzuela et al., 2007
CgAUX1, CgLAX3 Actinorhizal nodule formation after Frankia infectionPeret et al., 2007
ZmAUX1 Root development Hochholdinger et al., 2000
Auxin efflux carrier
AtPIN1 Vascular development, phyllotaxis, vein formation, embryogenesis, lateral organ formationBenková et al., 2003; Gälweiler et al., 1998; Reinhardt et al., 2003; Scarpella et al., 2006; Weijers et al., 2005
AtPIN2 (EIR1, AGR1, WAV6)Root gravitropism, lateral organ developmentBenková et al., 2003; Chen et al., 1998; Luschnig et al., 1998; Müller et al., 1998; Utsuno et al., 1998
AtPIN3 Shoot and root gravitropism and phototropism, lateral organ developmentBenková et al., 2003; Friml et al., 2002b
AtPIN4 Embryogenesis, root patterningBenková et al., 2003; Friml et al., 2002a; Friml et al., 2003b; Weijers et al., 2005
AtPIN5 Regulation of the intracellular auxin homeostasis and metabolismMravec et al., 2009
AtPIN6 Transport activity demonstrated in tobacco cells, in planta function unknownBenková et al., 2003; Petrášek et al., 2006
AtPIN7 Embryogenesis, root developmentBenková et al., 2003; Friml et al., 2003b; Blilou et al., 2005
PttPIN1-3 Vascular cambium development in wood-forming tissuesSchrader et al., 2003
CsPIN1 GravitropismKamada et al., 2003
LaPIN1,3 Etiolated hypocotyl growthOliveros-Valenzuela et al., 2007
ZmPIN1 Inflorescence branchingCarraro et al., 2006
BjPIN1-3 Differential expression in various tissues, vascular developmentNi et al., 2002a; Ni et al., 2002b
OsPIN1 Adventitious root emergenceXu et al., 2005
AtPGP1 (ABCB1)Embryogenesis, lateral root organogenesis, hypocotyl and plant growthGeisler et al., 2005; Lin and Wang, 2005; Mravec et al., 2008; Noh et al., 2001
ZmPGP1 (br2; brachytic) SbPGP1 (dw3; dwarf)Elongation growthMultani et al., 2003
AtABCB19 (MDR1, MDR11, PGP19)Embryogenesis, lateral root formation, root gravitropism, hypocotyl phototropism and gravitropism, leaf shapeLewis et al., 2007; Mravec et al., 2008; Nagashima et al., 2008a; Nagashima et al., 2008b; Noh et al., 2001; Petrášek et al., 2006; Wu et al., 2007
AtABCB4 (MDR4, PGP4)Basipetal transport in root epidermis, lateral root and root hair development, gravitropismCho et al., 2007; Lewis et al., 2007; Santelia et al., 2005; Terasaka et al., 2005; Wu et al., 2007
ZmTM20 Vasculature developmentJahrmann et al., 2005; Stiefel et al., 1999
  • At, Arabidopsis thaliana; Bj, Brassica juncea; Cg, Casuarina glauca; Cs, Cucumis sativus; La, Lupinus albus; Mt, Medicago truncatula; Os, Oryza sativa; Pa, Prunus avium; Ptt, Populus tremula x tremuloides; Sb, Sorghum bicolor; Zm, Zea mays.